Welcome to the Internet page of the Geant4-DNA project.

The Geant4 general purpose particle-matter Monte Carlo simulation toolkit is being extended with processes for the modeling of early biological damage induced by ionising radiation at the DNA scale. Such developments are on-going in the framework of the Geant4-DNA project, originally initiated by the European Space Agency/ESTEC. They are fully included in Geant4.

Microbeam irradiation of a keratinocyte (HaCaT) with alpha particles
(see the « microbeam » Geant4 advanced example)
- courtesy of L. Garnier (CNRS) -

Irradiation of a pBR322 plasmid, including radiolysis
- courtesy of V. Stepan (NPI-ASCR/CENBG/CNRS/IN2P3/ESA) -

On-going developments include

  • Physics processes in liquid water and other biological materials
  • Physico-chemistry and chemistry processes for water radiolysis
  • Molecular geometries
  • Quantification of damage (such as single-strand, double-strand breaks, base oxidation...)