Physics lists

For any application in
liquid water based on the Geant4-DNA extension, we recommend the implementation of a Geant4-DNA physics list using the G4EmDNAPhysics* Physics constructors, listed on this page.

The usage of such constructors is described in several Geant4-DNA extended examples (see
examples section).

List of available Geant4-DNA Physics constructors for liquid water

We currently recommend several Geant4-DNA Physics constructors for simulations in liquid water, they are listed below.

  • G4EmDNAPhysics_option2 : accelerated default constructor, simulating electrons interactions up to 1 MeV, as well as all other particle interactions
  • G4EmDNAPhysics_option4 : contains electron elastic and inelastic models by D. Emfietzoglou, I. Kyriakou, S. Incerti, up to 10 keV
  • G4EmDNAPhysics_option6 : contains CPA100 electron elastic and inelastic models by M. C. Bordage, M. Terrissol, S. Incerti, up to 255 keV

These constructors are described in the following
publication. Other constructors are preliminary or obsolete constructors.


  • The source code of all G4EmDNAPhysics* physics constructors may be found in the $G4INSTALL/source/physics_lists/constructors/electromagnetic directory.
  • The G4EmDNAPhysics_option6 constructor can also transport electrons in DNA components (see processes).
  • From Geant4 version 11.2, to facilitate combination with Geant4 standard electromagnetic physics:
    • option4 and option6 constructors can be used for electrons up to 1 MeV, the Born ionisation and excitation models (used in option2) are indeed used beyond the upper energy limit of the electron inelastic models.
    • do not use these constructors for incident energies exceeding the upper energy limit of the Geant4-DNA physics models (that is, 1 MeV for electrons, 300 MeV for protons, 400 MeV for alphas)
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